centro di formazione sulla relazione e le dinamiche relazionali tra l'umano e gli altri animali

Scientific References

Scientific Memberships

Francesco De Giorgio is member at Netherlands Society for Behavioural Biology (NVG), at Italian Society for Veterinary Physiology (SoFiVet) and at International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE).

Francesco De Giorgio is an italian ethologist and applied behaviour researcher, currently living in the Netherlands and working both in Italy as in the Netherlands. He is Guest Lecturer of Equine Cognition in several universities and his special field of research is applied social learning in horses. He is a scientist but also a practical man, having a band of eight horses with his partner in life and work José Maria Schoorl.


Baragli P., Mariti C., De Giorgio F., Petri L., Sighieri C., 2011.  Does attention make the difference? Horses’ response to human stimulus after 2 different training strategies. Journal of Veterinary Behavior

Baragli P., De Giorgio F., Mariti C., Martelli F., Sighieri C., 2007. Practical consideration on stimuli modulation using a “round pen technique” for horse training. VII Italian Veterinary Physiology Conference.

Baragli P., Mariti C., De Giorgio F., Basile C., Sighieri C., 2006. Assessment of the behaviour and haltering work time in young unhandled horses: influence of three different training methods. Proceedings of the 2nd International Equitation Science Symposium.

Baragli P., Mariti C., De Giorgio F., Sighieri C., 2008. Stimulus` perception in horses: Using Heart Rate (HR) as an appropriate indicator. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the International Society for Equitation Science.

De Giorgio F., Schoorl J., 2012. Why isolate during training? Social learning and social cognition applied as training approach for young horses (Equus caballus).  Proceedings International Equine Science Meeting

De Giorgio F., Schoorl J., Saviani G., Palandri L., Tonarelli E. 2012. Equine social cognition; differences in the social exploratory process comparing free-roaming and domestic horses. Proceedings Winter Meeting “Cognition in the Wild”, Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

Mariti C. , Baragli P. , De Giorgio F., Gazzano A., Basile C., Sighieri C. 2007. Influence of training methods on horse behaviour. VII Italian Veterinary Physiology Conference.

Scientific and Divulgative Bibliography

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Baker, A.E.M., Crawford, B.H., 1986. Observational learning in horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15, 7-13.

Bekoff, M., 1978. Social play: structure, function and the evolution of a cooperative social behaviour  Garland

Bekoff, M., 1995. Cognitive ethology, vigilance, information gathering, and
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Bekoff, M., Allen, C., 1997. Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. MIT Press

Clarke, J.V., Nicol, C.J., Jones, R., McGreevy, P.D., 1996. Effects of observational learning on food selection in horses. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 50, 177-184.

Clutton-Brock, J., 1981. Domesticated animals, from early times. London: Britisch Museum of Natural History.

Darwin, C., 1872. The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. John Murray, London

De Giorgio, F., 2010. Dizionario bilingue Italiano/Cavallo – Cavallo/Italiano. Sonda Editore

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Hare, B., Call, J., Agnetta, B., Tomasello, M., 2000. Chimpanzees know what conspecifics do and do not see. Animal Behaviour 59, 771-758.

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Heitor, F., Oom, M.M., Vicente, L., 2006b. Social relationships in a herd of Sorraia horses. Part II. Factors affecting affiliative relationships and sexual behaviours. Behav. Process. 73, 231–239.

Kiley-Worthington, M., 1997. Cooperation & Competition – A Detailed Study of Communication and Social Organisation in a Small Group of Horses at Pasture. Eco Research Centre Pub. 21

Kiley-Worthington, M., 2011. A comparative study of equine and elephant mental attributes leading to an acceptance of their subjectivity and consciousness. Journal of Counsciouness, vol. 2, num. 1

Krueger, K., 2006. Behaviour of horses in the ”Round pen technique”. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. in press.

Laland, N.K., 2004. Social learning strategies. Learning & Behavior, 32 (1), 4-14

Manning, A., 1996. On the origins of behaviour. New Scientist

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Nicol, C J., 2002. Equine learning: progress and suggestions for future research. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 78, 193-208.

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Learning and Motivation 27, 113–129.

Rivera, E., Benjamin, S., Nielsen, B., Shelle, J. & Zanella, A. J. 2002. Behavioral and physiological responses of horses to initial training: the comparison between pastured versus stalled horses. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 78, 235-252.

Shepard, P., 1995. The Others: How Animals Made Us Human. Island Press

Shettleworth, S.J., 2001. Animal cognition and animal behaviour. Anim. Behav. 61, 277–286.

Sondergaard, E., Ladewig, J., 2004. Group housing exerts a positive effect on the behaviour of young horses during training. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 87, 105-118.

Waran, N., Casey, R., 2005. Horse training in the domestic horse: the origins, development and management of its behaviour. Cambridge: D.S. Mills and S.M. Mc Donnell (Ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 184-195

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